Hallervorden-Spatz disease now more commonly known as Pantothenate kinase -associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a rare autosomal. Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN), also known as neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 1 (NBIA1), also called Hallervorden–Spatz syndrome, is a degenerative disease of the. Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN), formerly called Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome, is a rare, inherited neurological movement disorder.

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MR and pathologic findings. For rigidity and spasticity, dopamine agonists and anticholinergic agent alone or in combination may be used. J Postgrad Med ; Common speech problems are repetition of words or phrases palilaliarapid speech tachylaliaand dysarthria.

Investigational Therapies Information on current clinical trials hallwrvorden posted on the Internet at www.

Diwease gene encodes the enzyme pantothenate kinase, and mutations in the gene lead to an inborn error of vitamin B5 pantothenate metabolism. Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed. Diagnostic considerations The differential diagnosis of HSD includes other diseases presenting with extrapyramidal-pyramidal-dementia complex. MRI scan revealed small hyper intensity in inner part of both GP, surrounded by the hypo-intense rim peripherally on T2 [ Figure 3 ]. Loss of this peripheral vision may contribute diswase the more frequent falls and gait disturbances in the early stages.


Spasticity and muscle rigidity usually begin in the legs and later develop in the arms. The course of the disease usually proceeds over years and affected individuals typically die in the second or third decade, but case reports describe patients surviving 30 years. Case Rep Neurol Med.

Pathological examination of the brain showed iron deposition in bilateral globus pallidi, spongiform change and neuron axonal degeneration spheroids. The atypical form of PKAN usually occurs after the age of ten years and progresses more slowly. The disease can be familial or sporadic. Symptoms may vary greatly from case to case.

Hallervorden-Spatz disease

First scientific workshop on Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome: The association between pantothenate kinase and Hallervorrden suggests that supplemental pantothenate pantothenic acid, calcium pantothenate taken orally could be beneficial. Anesthesia for patients with pantothenate-kinase-associated neurodegeneration Hallervorden-Spatz disease – A literature review.

Click here to view as Video 2 ABRv Late onset parkinsonian syndrome in Hallervorden-Spatz disease. Pantothenate is another name for vitamin B5, a water soluble vitamin. Houlden Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology. Sea-blue histiocytes, lymphocytic cytosomes, movement disorder and 59Fe-uptake in basal ganglia: Show details Treasure Island FL: Cases in infancy and of adult onset have also been reported. Referral to pediatric palliative care specialists can be highly beneficial during later disease stages.


Neuroprotection by a novel brain permeable iron chelator, VK, against 6-hydrodopamine lesion in rats. However, no conclusive data is available.

Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration – NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders)

This page was last edited on 11 Decemberat Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome was first described in by Drs. Current state of knowledge in Chorea-Acanthocytosis as core Neuroacanthocytosis syndrome.

In addition to rigidity, dystonia, and chorea, patients may experience spasticity, brisk reflexes, and extensor plantar responses. In general, atypical disease is less severe and more slowly progressive than early-onset PKAN. Review Unraveling the Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome: